Introduction



An orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space. An example would be a planet going around a star. This is possible due to gravity, or the force between every object in space. The more mass an object has, the more gravitational force that object has. For example, a person's gravitational force is nothing compared to the earth's. So what does this have to do with an orbit? Well, the gravitational pull of the object being orbited exerts a gravitational force on the object that is in orbit. So in order for this object to get into orbit it has to be going fast enough in the direction perpendicular to the direction of the gravitational pull that it is in constant free fall.



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I know i misspelled Mountain

Example



A good way to think about this is as if a cannon is on top of a really tall mountain and it shoots a cannon ball. If it's shot too slow then the ball will fall and hit the earth. It can also go too fast and get thrown out of orbit into space. This can happen to space ships and satellites if they are not careful on how fast they are going. So, finally, if you get going at the perfect velocity to counterbalance your acceleration towards the planet, you are officially in free fall and will remain in orbit forever (as long as we don't count friction).


Math



So how do you find how fast you should go to go into orbit? Well, you can use the equation F(c)=mass(velocity^2)/radius, where your Fc equals the gravitational force of Earth, which is 10N, the mass is the mass of the satellite, and radius is the radius of earth plus the height of the satellite. Using this, you will get your velocity.